2nd Class City
in the Aleutians West Census Area
- Area Type
- Current Population
- Population Comment
- 2013 DCCED Certified Estimate
- Pronunciation/Other Names
- (a' dack); formerly Adak Station
- Census Designated Place (CDP)
- Borough/Census Area FIPS Code
- Place FIPS
Election, Recording, and Judicial Districts
- Senate District
- House District
- Judicial District
- Recording District
- Aleutian Islands
Facilities and Amenities
- Municipal Facilities & Utilities
- Piped Water, Piped Sewer, Roads, Landfill, Solid Waste, Fire, Police, City Hall, Gymnasium, Community Room, Boat Harbor
Geography and Climate
- Adak is located on Kuluk Bay on Adak Island. It lies 1,300 miles southwest of Anchorage and 350 miles west of Unalaska or its port Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Island Chain. Flight time to Anchorage is three hours. Adak is the southern-most community in Alaska, on the latitude of Vancouver Island in Canada.
- Community Map Available
- Sq Mi Land
- Sq Mi Water
- Adak lies in the maritime climate zone, characterized by persistently overcast skies, high winds, and frequent cyclonic storms. Winter squalls produce wind gusts in excess of 100 knots. During the summer, extensive fog forms over the Bering Sea and North Pacific. Average temperatures range from 20 to 60 °F.Total precipitation is 64 inches annually, with an average accumulated snowfall of 100 inches.
History and Culture
- The Aleutian Islands were historically occupied by the Unangas. The once heavily-populated island was eventually abandoned in the early 1800s, as the Aleutian Island hunters followed the Russian fur trade eastward, and famine set in on the Andreanof Island group. The Native population continued to actively hunt and fish around the island over the years, until World War II broke out. Adak's military installations allowed U.S. forces to mount a successful offensive against the Japanese-held islands of Kiska and Attu. After the war, Adak was developed as a Naval Air Station, playing an important role during the Cold War as a submarine surveillance center. Large earthquakes rocked the island in 1957, 1964, and 1977. The naval station officially closed on March 31, 1997. The Aleut Corporation acquired Adak's facilities under a land transfer agreement with the Department of the Interior and the U.S. Navy branch of the Department of Defense. In 2001, a community formed as a second-class city.
- After World War II, the U.S. Navy developed facilities and recreation opportunities at Adak. The base was a full service base. At its peak, the station housed 6,000 naval personnel and their families. As of 2009, all of naval installations were closed. Ownership of the facilities passed to the Aleut Corporation and the City of Adak.
- Indigenous Language
- Federally Recognized Tribe
- Incorporation Type
- 2nd Class City
- Public Education
- Not permitted to provide this service.
- Planning, Platting and Land Use Regulation
- Not required to exercise the powers in any circumstance, but may be permitted in all cases in the manner described for first class cities.
- Property Tax Powers
- May tax up to 20 mills, except where a higher levy is required to avoid default. Voter approval required.
- Sales Tax Powers
- No limit on the rate of levy of sales taxes; however, voter approval is required.
- Other Powers Not Prohibited
- May exercise other powers not prohibited by law.
- City Council or Assembly Composition and Apportionment
- 7 members elected at-large, except the council may provide for election other than at-large.
- Election and Term of Mayor
- Elected from the city council for a 1-year term, unless a longer term is provided by ordinance. Mayor selected by council (or by voters upon adoption of ordinance).
- Vote by Mayor
- Votes on all matters.
- Veto Power of the Mayor
- Does not have veto power.
- Power of Eminent Domain
- Permitted, but requires voter approval.
- Ability to Attain Home-Rule Status
- May not adopt home-rule charter without first reclassifying to a first-class city.
- Adak Airport is a State of Alaska owned & maintained certificated airport and has two asphalt paved runways. The community participates in the Essential Air Services program, which helps funds commercial air flights. Alaska Airlines operates passenger and cargo jet service. There are three deep water docks and fueling facilities and additional facilities that service the fishing industry. In 2006, a 315 foot sheet pile dock was installed, and in 2011 dredging of the harbor basin and entrance was completed. In 2014, plans were in place to expand the basin of Sweeper Cove Small Boat Harbor and install moorage floats, vessel haul-out capabilities, new breakwaters and utility services. This project will go forward as funding is secured. There is no harbormaster for the Adak Small Boat Harbor, but there is a private harbormaster for the other docks. Adak has approximately 16 miles of paved roads, as well as gravel and dirt roads.
- State Ferry
- Cargo Barge
- Road Connection